This is a cool article I ran across about solar panels and how they work.
Sunlight makes plants grow and the same sunlight has the power to bring comfort to you physically and economically. The science behind photosynthesis and photovoltaics is not identical; however, the power source is the same, namely sunlight. Home solar panels, also known as photovoltaic panels, or pv panels, are constructed according to principles of microelectronics. A semiconductor forms the surface of each solar cell, capturing electrons, which are released from photons as the sunbeams strike the surface. The cell construction directs the electrons into a current. It was a period of almost 125 years from the first recorded observation of the phenomena until it was translated into the home solar panels of the 1970′s, prompted by the international oil crisis.
Each panel generates power within certain parameters determined by the manufacturer with the best home solar panels producing higher voltage. The battery has fixed input amperage so a tracking device has been developed to capture the maximum voltage possible, considering temperature and weather conditions. Named Maximum Power Point Tracking, it is also termed an MPPT controller or power tracker.Read more at solarpowersystemshome.com